Pomeranian – Everything You Need To Know

Pomeranian is a pure breed toy-sized dog belonging to the Spitz family. Also called Pom, and in many other names, they are the smallest member of the Spitz family of dogs. Pomeranians have their personalities and are affectionately nicknamed “the little dog who thinks he can.” Although small, they excel in canine activities like agility and obedience. Their tiny size and adorable demeanor make them a favorite for commoners and royals across the globe. They excel in tricks and games and thus will make a laughing companion to their humans. They come in a lot of colors, markings, and patterns and are a delight to the eyes. They are perky, playful, and funny and make a great companion for apartments and bigger homes.

Pomeranian Pros and Cons

Good guard dogSensitive to hot temperatures
Suitable for apartment livingDo not suit smaller kids
Loyal and playfulStubborn and loud

Pomeranian Basic Information

  • Name: Pomeranian
  • Origin: Central Europe
  • Group: Toy group
  • Size: Small
  • Height: 7-12 inches
  • Weight: 3-7 pounds
  • Coat: Double-coated
  • Color: Black, black and tan, blue, blue and tan, chocolate, chocolate and tan, cream, cream sable, orange, orange sable, red, red sable, sable, bridle, white
  • Energy: High to medium
  • Activities: Companion dogs
  • Barking Level: High
  • Shedding Level: High
  • Hypoallergenic: No
  • Litter Size: 1-5 puppies
  • Other Names: Deutscher Spitz, ZwergSpitz, Dwarf Spitz
  • Original Passtime: Guard dogs
  • Life Span: 12-16 years

History of Pomeranians

Pomeranians are miniature relatives of Spitz breed dogs of the Arctic. These sled dogs were named after the Pomerania region in northwest Poland and northeast Germany in Central Europe, where they originated. Their ancestors were much bigger and bred to smaller sizes about 300 years ago. They are called by various names in different countries, including ZwergSpitz, and are the smallest dog of the Spitz family. Pomeranians became popular after Queen Victoria fell in love with the breed while visiting Florence, Italy. Once she returned to England with the dog, the breed’s fame rose.

Interestingly, Queen Victoria was a serious breeder, and it was she who reduced the dog’s size from 30 pounds to the current toy size. When the aged queen Victoria lay dying in 1901, her favorite Pomeranian, Turi, sat at the foot of her bed all along. Other important people from history who owned Pomeranian are Maria Antoinette, Emile Zola, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In 1888 the first Pom, Dick, entered the American Kennel Society stud book. Later AKC recognized the breed in 1900 as the most popular dog breed in America. Pomeranians rank 14th among the 155 breeds registered by the AKC.

Pomeranians Highlights

  • Pomeranians are wary of strangers and tend to bark a lot.
  • Crate training is essential as they are difficult to housetrain.
  • They can not tolerate high temperatures and are prone to heat strokes.
  • Poms are house dogs and do not suit outdoors.
  • Due to their size, Poms are seen as prey by owls, eagles, hawks, and other giant birds.
  • They have adorable faces, which become a target for the dognappers.
  • Their “big dog attitude” makes them forget their size and may chase bigger dogs.

Pomeranians Personality

Pomeranians are small, compact, and active dogs that belong to Nordic descent. They grow up to 7-12 inches and weigh about 3-7 pounds. They are double coated and are not hypoallergenic. The outer coat is rough and long, whereas the undercoat is short and dense. They come in various colors and markings, and the coat color includes Black, black and tan, blue, blue and tan, chocolate, chocolate and tan, cream, cream sable, orange, orange sable, red, red sable, sable, bridle, white. The tail is plummed. It adds to the adorable look.

Pom’s eyes are dark, almond-shaped, and express intelligence. The ears are small and erect. Poms are inquisitive by nature and sound in composition and action.

Friendliness Overview

Affection levelHigh

Adaptability Overview

Good for apartment livingHigh
Good for new ownersHigh
Sensitivity levelHigh
Tolerates being aloneLow 
Cold toleranceHigh
Heat toleranceLow

Pomeranians Physical Features

Head: The head is in the correct proportion and balances with the body. The eyes are almond-shaped, clear, bright, and dark with a fox-like expression. Ears are small and erect. The skull is round, and the muzzle is short and straight. 

Neck: The neck is proportionate to the shoulders, which allows the head to be held high and proud.

Topline: The topline is balanced from withers to croup.

Body: The body is small, compact, and well ribbed. The chest is well-developed and oval that extends to the point of the shoulders. The back is short-coupled, straight, and strong with a flat croup. The loin is short and slightly tucked up. 

Tail: The tail is heavily feathered, set high, and falls straight flat in the back.

Forequarters: The shoulders are well laid with an equally set shoulder blade and upper arm length. Elbows are close to the body. The forelegs are moderately spaced, straight, and parallel to each other. 

The shoulders and legs are moderately muscled. The feet are round, well-arched, compact, and cat-like.

Hindquarters: The hindquarters are well balanced and powerful. The hips and thighs are muscular, with their legs straight and parallel. The declaws should be removed.

Coat: The coat is double-coated, with a short, dense undercoat. The hair is lustrous and long, which forms a longer outer coat. The forelegs and tail are well-feathered. The thighs and hind legs are thickly feathered, forming a coat.

Color:  All colors and patterns.

Gait: The gait is smooth and elegant, exhibiting power and effortless speed. Well-balanced with good reach and strong drive.

Pomeranians Temperament

Pomeranians are small, fun-loving dogs with mids of their own. They are known for their cute, furry look with a feisty personality. They are independent, bold, alert, and always curious about the world around them. Despite their small size, they are excellent watchdogs. They have great minds and forget their size, and sometimes try to attack the larger dogs. Early socialization and training help them to get along with children and other dogs. They are wary of strangers and bark a lot to alert their owners. They are best suited for apartments but can also live in any home. They are highly independent and suit people with busy work schedules. They are a great company for older people and always make an excellent family companion. Their overall temperament includes

  • Loyal
  • Bold 
  • Sensitive
  • Intelligent
  • Watchdog
  • Playful
  • Fun-loving
  • Independent
  • Alert
  • Feisty

Pomeranians Training

The Pomeranians are intelligent and easy to train. They can also be trained as hearing assistance dogs. They are smart and alert and enjoy training in canine activities like agility, rally, and obedience. They also excel as therapy dogs for elders and the sick. They should be leash trained in the early stages and taught the commands. Like any other dog, they need early socialization and puppy training classes. The training requires patience and consistency during the period. 

Pomeranians are sensitive to any adverse reactions and need positive reinforcement while training. They love being around people, and treats and cuddling do wonders while training. They are active and look forward to the training sessions, playing fetch, which helps in training regarding behavioral corrections. Obedience training and socialization help behavioral correction and bring out the best in any dog. 

Poms are mischievous little puppies and should be prevented from jumping on the bed and couches as they may injure the joints or bones. Their training can include the following:

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Pomeranians Exercise Needs

Pomeranians are highly active, energetic, and enjoy exercises and activities. A daily exercise routine of 30 – 60 minutes is ideal for keeping the dog’s mental and physical stimulation intact. Walking 2 – 3 times a day with a bit of running and play keeps the dog happy and healthy. They excel in canine activities like agility, fetch, rally and flyball. They enjoy running, walking, hiking, agility, and indoor games. A proper exercise routine helps the dog with the following benefits.

  • Social interaction
  • Weight control
  • Stress relief
  • Behavioral corrections like excessive chewing, persistent barking
  • Brain stimulation
  • Strengthening muscles
  • Routine toileting
  • Mental health and happiness

Exercise Needs Overview

Energy levelHigh
Exercise needsHigh
IntensityHigh to medium

Pomeranians Grooming

Pomeranians have small bodies with profuse coats. They are double coated and shed moderately. The coat needs to be brushed 2-3 times per week. They may need extra brushing during their shedding season. Brushing helps remove clump hair and pull out the loose fur during shedding. One of the essential parts of grooming is bathing which keeps the dog clean. However, frequent bathing causes dry skin and itches. Bathing your dog using shampoos with Balanced ph. for dogs, pet wipes will keep your dog’s coat fresh, clean, and shiny. They can also be bathed once a week. However, daily brushing helps to keep the fur from knots and tangles. 

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They are prone to collect ear wax quickly. Hence, Ears should be cleaned and regularly checked as they are prone to ear problems. Brush their teeth daily to prevent plaque and other dental problems. Never brush the teeth with a stiff brush as it will harm the gums and teeth. Also, make sure to use dog-friendly toothpaste. 

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Also, clean their eyes and trim their nails as a part of everyday grooming needs. Their toenails must be checked weekly as longer nails may harm and injure the dog. You can trim the toenails with a commercial dog nail trimmer or with the help of a vet or professional groomer.

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Grooming Overview

Easy to groomLow
Drooling tendenciesLow 
Amount of sheddingHigh

Pomeranians Health

Pomeranian are healthy and active dogs. Yet, it’s always wise to be aware of the health conditions they are prone to. 

Health Overview

General healthMedium
Weight gain tendenciesHigh to medium

Progressive Retinal Atrophy: Many eye infections involve the retina’s slow deterioration. In the initial phases, puppies become night-blind. As it progresses, they lose their eyesight during the daytime as well. However, most canines slowly adapt to their slight or complete sight loss as long as their home surroundings remain the same.


  • Food-based allergies: This can be treated by following an elimination diet that eliminates suspected ingredients to which the dog may be allergic.  
  • Contact allergies: These allergies are caused due to the adverse reaction of a dog’s immune system when it comes in contact with a topical substance such as bedding, flea powders, dog shampoos, and other chemicals. Removing the cause of the allergy reduces the symptoms.  
  • Inhalant allergies are caused when your canine accidentally inhales airborne allergens like pollen, dust, and mildew. Treatment for these allergies depends upon their severity. Often, these allergies are accompanied by ear infections.

Legg-Calve Perthes Disease: The blood supply of the femur is decreased, due to which the pelvis begins to disintegrate, and the hip becomes gradually weakened. Symptoms include limping and atrophies of the leg muscle. The diseased femur can be corrected with surgery. 

Epilepsy: This is the most prevalent neurological disease in canines, concerning about 0.75 percent of the population. Epilepsy is a broad name for disorders characterized by repeated, uncontrollable seizures caused by a brain defect. 

Eye Defects  

  • Deformed Eyes (Small Microphthalmia): Animals suffering from this deformation develop smaller eyes as the nictitating membranes cover their sockets or sockets. For this reason, they may be confined to an eye or both.   
  • Missing Eye or Eyes (Anophthalmia): This congenital disability occurs when one or both eyes are missing. At times, the eyes may have been formed but exist so deep inside the eye socket that the nictitating membrane covers them.   
  • Wandering Eye: This condition is characterized by eye degeneration which causes the lens to be liquefied.  
  • Cataracts: The condition causes cloudiness on the eye lens, which can lead to blindness.  
  • Starburst Pupil (Coloboma): This deformation may be associated with deafness and blindness. It is similar to an eye cleft. This condition may also lead to cataracts in dogs.   
  • Jagged Pupils: Dogs suffering from this defect are sensitive to light as their pupils have irregular edges.   
  • Blindness: Lack of eyesight in one or both the eyes  
  • Corectopia: This condition doesn’t affect the dogs severely but may get associated with other issues. In this condition, the pupils of the eye droop below their normal position.   
  • Cherry Eye: When the glands under your canine’s eyelid protrude, it appears like cherry and has to be removed surgically. 
  • Dry Eye:  This painful condition dries the affected eye or creates a blue haze due to the insufficient production of tears. It can be treated with proper medication or teardrops. 
  • Entropion: Entropion is when the eyelids are positioned inwards, disturbing the eye and causing eye irritation. Treatment involves correcting the eyelids surgically.  

Patellar Luxation: It is also known as “slipped stifles,” a common problem in small dog breeds that is caused when the patella, which has three parts-the femur (thigh bone), patella (knee cap), and tibia (calf) — is not correctly bounded. This leads to lameness in the leg or an abnormal gait, like a hop or a skip. This condition is caused by birth, although the misalignment or luxation does not always occur much later. In addition, the rubbing caused by patellar luxation leads to arthritis. There are four patellar luxation grades, ranging from phase I, an occasional luxation causing unstable lameness in the joint, to grade IV, where the turning of the tibia is heavy, and you cannot realign the patella manually. This gives your dog a bow-legged appearance. Uphill grades of patellar luxation may require surgery.

Cardiac Problems: Dogs often suffer from cardiac problems. Unfortunately, many people are unaware of the signs or symptoms that could lead to cardiac problems in dogs. The most common cardiac issue is left ventricular hypertrophy, an enlarged heart’s left ventricle. This enlargement can be caused by many factors, including high blood pressure, obesity, and old age. Owners need to know how to recognize these symptoms and take their dogs to the vet for treatment. Dogs with a history of heart disease may show signs like coughing or breathing problems, fatigue, lethargy, and vomiting. These signs are often accompanied by decreased appetite and weight loss.

Spay or Neuter: In spay, the ovaries or uterus in females is removed, and in the neuter, the testicles of the male dogs are removed. It is done to eliminate the possibility of pregnancy or fathering unwanted puppies and decrease the likelihood of certain types of cancer.

Recommended Tests for Pomeranians

  • X-Rays 
  • CT Scan 
  • Eye Examination 
  • Physical Examination 
  • Blood Work
  • Vet-Certified Proof of Genetic Testing

Pomeranians Diet and Nutrition

Pomeranians need a large quantity of high-quality food and should eat 1/4 to 1/2 cup of meal daily. Each puppy is distinctive, and the correct amount and quality of food depend on age, weight, activity level, health, and more. The meals can also be split into two 2 cups daily. They are prone to obesity, and hence overfeeding must be avoided. Pomeranian pups can be given dry food, wet food, or both. Ensure the diet contains omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, chondroitin, and glucosamine. They can also be fed with fruits and vegetables that give carbohydrate energy. Never hesitate to consult a vet to meet your pup’s dietary requirements to keep them happy and healthy.

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Pomeranians Living Condition

Pomeranians are active indoor dogs and perfectly suit apartments and houses with no fences. They also love outdoor activities like walking, running, playing, hunting, and visiting dog parks. They must be supervised and leashed on walks as they tend to sneak out. They love to play and hence should be given a lot of toys. They love to entertain and enjoy trick training. 

The Poms can tolerate cold weather conditions and moderately tolerate hot temperatures. They thrive on companionship, playtime, training, praises, and cuddles.

Adding Pomeranians to Your Family

Things to Remember Before Adding Pomeranians to Your Family

It is best to get a Pomeranian from a reputable breeder to prevent unavoidable circumstances like health disorders and provide you with vaccination certificates. It is best to check with the puppy’s parents to ensure his health and happiness.

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